Trap Catches Identified to September 04, 2020.
Aphid vector numbers were down this week, with increasing numbers of fields being vine-killed, fewer sites are reporting. The number of vector aphids recovered to this point in 2019 was only 2/3 of what we've captured in 2020. Consequently, as can be seen in the map and tables below, the regional PVY Vector Risk Index is higher in 2020 than it was this time last year. The numbers of certain species varies a bit this year, we've recovered fewer English grain aphids, but far more corn leaf aphids; the numbers of green peach aphids are very similar to last year but from different locations. Green peach aphids seem to be more dispersed this year, 10 of the 19 sites have recovered this species (which is the most efficient vector of PVY).
Importantly, this was the highest capture of green peach aphids we've seen so far this year. Soybean aphid captures were up this week; we've stated to experience cooler evenings and flights to buckthorn may well make up some of these numbers. Thistle aphid numbers were up this week, potato aphids and and small grain aphids are still well represented in the trap captures while damson-hop and cannabis aphids have decreased this week.
While many fields have already vine-killed, it's obviously important if you have green plants still in the field to be managing aphid vectors. Much of our within-field transmission of PVY probably occurs later in the season.
If you have a field where Colorado Potato Beetle aren’t being controlled by insecticides, please let us know. We’d like to get samples of that population to test for insecticide resistance. Contact Ian MacRae at 218-280-9887.
As always, keep on scouting!
Scouting for aphids in potatoes:
- Select leaves from the lower to mid canopy. Start at the edge of the field.
- Lower, older leaves will have more established colonies and aphids prefer the balance of nutrients found here; aphids are rarely found on leaves in the upper canopy.
- Avoid leaves on the ground or in contact with the soil.
- In seed potatoes there is only a threshold for PLRV (10 aphids/100 leaves), reactive application of insecticides an effective control for PVY.
- The use of feeding suppressing insecticides, such as pymetrozine (Fulfill®) or flonicamid (Beleaf®) and refined crop oils, such as Aphoil and JMS Stylet Oil, at or prior to field colonization by aphids may reduce the transmission of PVY within fields. Some other insecticides, such as clothianidin (Belay®), imidacloprid (Admire Pro® or Provado®), and spirotetramat (Movento®), have also been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of PVY.
- In table stock potatoes, a treatment threshold of 30 aphids /100 leaves should deter yield loss due to aphid feeding.
The PVY Risk Index Index
Not all species of aphid are equally efficient at transmitting PVY, some are better than others (green peach being the most efficient vector of PVY). So, the total number of aphids in a trap don't necessarily reflect just how much vector pressure there is at that location. The PVY Vector Risk Index compares aphid numbers, incorporating their relative vector efficiency compared to the Queen of PVY vectors (green peach aphid!). Using averaged reference comparisons from the literature, we multiply the number of each aphid species captured by its efficiency compared to Green Peach Aphid to more accurately depict risk posed by the species being trapped. We then sum the totals. The PVY-VRI values are presented on the tables below but also on maps comparing current cumulative risk to the total risk from the sample sites of last year (to compare with your local winter grow out results).
Click on any image below for full-scale version.
Cumulative PVY Vector Risk Index to September 04, 2020.
Cumulative PVY Vector Risk Index to September 01, 2019 season (for comparison)